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Porosity | Inclusions | Incomplete Fusion | Inadequate Penetration | Cracks

Cracks
No. Defects Remedies

1.

High rigidity of joint

Use preheating
Relieve residual stresses.
Minimize shrinkage stresses, Using back step or block
welding sequences.

2.

Poor Joint fit up

Adjust root opening all alignment

3.

Higher carbon content of weld metal and / or harden able base material/

Use proper electrode
Use buttering layers wherever necessary

4.

Too Small a weld bead

Decrease travel speed to increase cross section of bead.

5.

High Sulphur content in base or

Use filler with high level of weld metal sulphur fixing element like Mn.

6.

Hot cracking

Reduce the heat input.

7.

Cracking at the crater

Filling up the crator before withdrawing the electrode
Use taper power control device.
Use back step welding technique

8.

Higher harden ability

Preheat the job.
Post weld heat treatment without cooling to room temperature.

9.

Hydrogen induced cracking /Delayed cracking

Use low Hydrogen welding electrode
Use suitable preheat and post Weld heat treatment

10.

Presence of brittle phases in the Micro structure of the base Material

Soften the material before welding.

11.

Low ductility of the base material

Use preheat.
Anneal the base metal
Use ductile weld metal.

12.

High residual stresses

Redesign the weld metal and reduce restraints
Change welding sequence
Use intermediate stress-relief Heat treatment.

13.

Excessive dilution

Change welding current.
Use buttering technique wherever possible.

14.

Under Cut

Reduce Current
Use proper diameter of Electrode
Reduce weaving

15.

Spatter

Reduce Current

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